In today’s digital age, the technology for creating deepfakes is becoming more advanced and accessible, allowing cybercriminals to use manipulated voices and faces to generate malicious content and impersonate identities.
Despite this, a study conducted by iProov found that 71% of respondents globally are not familiar with the term “deepfake,” and 43% admit they could not detect one.
The consequences of believing in these counterfeit videos can range from innocent confusion to serious harm or even damage to reputations. You should be prepared and know how to spot deepfakes before they fool you or spread misinformation among your peers.
In this blog post on how to spot a deepfake, I will provide an easy-to-follow guide on identifying high-quality deepfakes videos by examining crucial elements such as facial movements, lighting inconsistencies, and audio issues while discussing ways to verify their authenticity.
What is Deepfakes?
Deepfakes are highly manipulated videos or images created using deep learning technology that allows face and voice swapping, making it hard to detect the authenticity of the content.
Deepfakes are digital creations that use AI to manipulate images, audio, and videos in a highly realistic manner. When you see a deepfake video or hear altered audio, it’s as if one person has taken the place of another, both visually and vocally.
One famous example of a deepfake is when comedian Jordan Peele created a video seemingly featuring former U.S. president Barack Obama making controversial statements. Another interesting case was the swapping of actor Nicolas Cage’s face with various other movie characters, creating bizarre but believable scenes within those films.
Deepfake Creation Technology
Deepfake technology relies on artificial intelligence and machine learning to create these convincing yet fake photos, videos, and stories. To better understand how deepfakes are made, let’s dive into the process.
First, creators collect numerous images or video clips of the two people they want to swap faces with – one serving as the source face and another as a target face.
Next, a machine learning model, Generative Adversarial Network (GAN), is trained using these collected images or videos. By having the AI algorithm analyze subtle facial attributes such as eye movements, lip movement matching, head movements, and more; it starts learning how to mimic those expressions on different faces.
Finally, after extensive training has taken place within the AI system – which can range anywhere from hours to days depending on computing power – it becomes capable of generating realistic deepfake videos where both appearance and voice are manipulated seamlessly.
What are the Signs Of Deepfake?
One can identify a deepfake by examining the following features: skin tone, facial features, lip synchronization, facial expressions, head movements, shadows, eye movements, and audio.
1. Variations In Skin Tone
When trying to spot a deepfake, it’s important to look for variations in skin tone. Deepfakes are created using artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms, which can struggle to replicate subtle changes in our skin’s appearance accurately.
These can include areas of discoloration or stains that don’t match the rest of the person’s face or other parts of the body.
In the above image, you can see that the edges around the hands and fingers of the police officers (bottom left) appear blurry or distorted. Additionally, the tanning on Trump’s face is exaggerated and appears blotchy. (bottom left) In another photo, while the arms of the police officers are realistically depicted, the background color is overly contrasted and does not match the scene’s actual lighting. (bottom right)
2. Unnatural Lip-Syncing Or Lack Of Blinking
Another way to spot a deepfake is by paying attention to the lip movements and blinking. Deepfakes may have unnatural movements when it comes to syncing audio with the mouth, making the video look fake.
Computer-generated faces don’t produce natural eye movement as frequently as real ones do, so if you notice an absence of blinking or incredibly long blinks in a video, it could be a sign that you are watching a deepfake.
The deepfake video of Mark Zuckerberg above utilizes voice cloning techniques to create the illusion that he is saying words that he never actually spoke.
This kind of manipulation can be achieved using an encoder-decoder system, which aims to fool people into thinking that they are watching a real video.
However, checking out for inconsistencies between the voice and lip movements makes it possible to identify these deepfakes and protect oneself from misinformation.
3. Checking for Texture, Details, and Blurry or Distorted Edges
Another useful technique for spotting a deepfake is to zoom in on the image or video and check for texture and details. Deepfakes often have anomalies such as inconsistent lighting, blurry or distorted edges around the face or body, and unnatural textures that aren’t present in real images.
In the above image, The legs of Donald Trump and the hands and arms of the police officers have been blurred and inaccurately processed. Trump’s legs appear as if he has multiple legs like an octopus, making it difficult to discern which legs belong to him.
These subtle inconsistencies are often tricky to spot with a cursory glance but become much more apparent when looking at an image up close.
4. Inconsistencies In Facial Expressions And Movements
One of the ways to detect video manipulation is by looking for inconsistencies in facial expressions and movements. Creating deepfakes often relies on manipulating an existing video or image to create a convincing but fake version.
However, even with advanced technology, it’s challenging to perfectly mimic every aspect of a person’s face and body.
If you’re watching the above video of Elon Musk and notice that his lips are not synced with what he is saying or his head movements seem off, it is a sign that the video has been manipulated.
5. Unnatural Physical Stance
An unnatural physical stance or appearance is another key indicator of a deepfake. Deepfake technology can manipulate a person’s body shape in a way that doesn’t seem natural or consistent with reality.
For example, a deepfake video could show a person whose body appears distorted or disproportionate or whose head and body are positioned awkwardly or in a way that doesn’t align with normal movement patterns. These irregularities in a person’s physical posture or appearance can be an important warning sign that the video has been altered through deepfake technology.
Detecting anomalies in a person’s body shape can be relatively straightforward since deepfake algorithms primarily focus on replicating facial characteristics.
If you suspect a video has been manipulated through deepfake technology, pay close attention to the person’s entire body in addition to their face.
6. Unnatural Lighting Or Shadows
Unnatural lighting or shadows can be a sign that a video or image may be a deepfake. Deepfakes are videos created using artificial intelligence to manipulate someone’s face and voice into doing and saying things they never actually did.
Shadows and skin tones are common ways to spot a deepfake, as they are difficult to render authentically. For example, if the shadow on one side of the face is lighter than the other side, it could indicate that part of the face was digitally added in.
Similarly, if there are inconsistent shadows around an object in the background versus someone’s body shape in the foreground, this could also indicate manipulation.
What are the Impacts Of Deepfakes?
On a global scale, deepfakes have significant legal and ethical concerns, as they can be used for malicious purposes such as misinformation and manipulation.
Misinformation And Manipulation
Misinformation and manipulation are two significant consequences of deepfake technology. Deepfakes have the power to deceive people by altering videos and digital images, making it difficult for individuals to distinguish between real and fake content.
For example, imagine a high school student stumbling upon a deepfake video of their favorite celebrity saying something offensive or engaging in illegal activities. Believing the video is genuine, they might share it on social media with friends who also struggle to identify the falsified content.
As more people view and share the manipulated video, an inaccurate perception of that celebrity spreads rapidly across the internet.
Legal And Ethical Concerns
The rise of deepfakes has raised significant legal and ethical concerns. One major issue is consent, as deepfakes can use a person’s likeness without their permission. This means that they could be used for blackmail or intimidation, causing psychological harm to the individual in question.
Another concern is the potential commercial use of deepfakes. Without proper regulation, fake celebrity endorsements could become prevalent in advertising campaigns – misleading consumers and harming both brands and individuals.
As we navigate this technological revolution brought on by artificial intelligence (AI), it’s important to consider these technologies’ legal and ethical implications before putting them into practice – especially when it comes to creating false content from real people’s faces or voices.
How to Verify A Deepfake?
To verify a deepfake, use specialized software or tools, conduct a reverse image search, seek expert opinion, examine metadata, and verify the video’s source.
Use Specialized Software Or Tools
Specialized deepfake detection software or tools are a great resource for identifying fake videos and preventing the spread of misinformation.
These services use advanced artificial intelligence technology to analyze videos and flag any signs of manipulation or alteration.
Here are some popular online deepfake detection services you can use:
1. Deepware Scanner: This app uses deep learning algorithms to detect any signs of manipulation in images or videos.
2. Sensity AI: This app is designed to scan social media platforms for deepfakes and alert users if it detects one. This service uses deep learning algorithms to detect deepfakes in real-time. It analyzes video content, audio track, and facial features to determine whether the content is authentic or not
3. Focos Live: This app allows users to check for signs of deepfakes by looking at variations in skin tone, eye movements, and facial expressions.
4. Deeptrace Labs: Deeptrace is a company that specializes in detecting deepfakes and other forms of synthetic media. Its software can analyze images and videos to detect signs of manipulation. This company offers a suite of tools for detecting deepfakes, including software that can analyze audio tracks for inconsistencies and lip-sync issues.
5. Truepic: This app uses blockchain technology to verify that images and videos are authentic and have not been manipulated. Truepic offers a suite of tools for verifying the authenticity of digital media, including photos and videos.
6. Amber Authenticate: Amber Authenticate is a software tool that helps users verify the authenticity of digital media by analyzing metadata and providing a tamper-proof certificate.
7. Serelay: Serelay is an app that allows users to verify the authenticity of photos and videos using their smartphone camera. The app captures multiple frames at different angles, which makes it difficult for fraudsters to create convincing deepfakes.
These apps are just a few examples of the growing number of tools available for detecting deepfakes. It’s important to remember that no tool is foolproof, but using them can help you become more aware of the potential for manipulated media and take steps to verify the authenticity of what you see online.
Conduct A Reverse Image Search
Another way to verify a deepfake is by conducting a reverse image search. This technique involves uploading an image or video frame to a specialized search engine, which scans the internet for visually similar images and videos.
Reverse image searches have been particularly useful in verifying news stories and debunking fake media on social media such as Twitter and Facebook. By cross-referencing several sources of information, journalists and fact-checkers have managed to unearth original photos from which forgeries are made, thereby exposing manipulations.
Seek Expert Opinion
If you’re unsure about whether a video is a deepfake, consider seeking expert opinion. Experts such as forensic analysts and academics have experience in analyzing media content to determine its authenticity.
For example, experts were able to confirm that a video showing the Ukrainian president being sworn in using an AI-generated face was a deepfake. Seeking expert help can be especially useful when traditional methods of identifying deepfakes fail due to their increasing sophistication.
However, it’s important to note that there may not always be access or affordability of these experts for individuals.
Another way to verify if a video is real or fake is by examining its metadata. Metadata contains information about the origin and authenticity of the file, such as the date it was created, modified, and uploaded.
This information can be accessed using specialized software or online tools.
For example, Facebook’s fact-checkers are training AI to detect deepfakes by examining their metadata. They developed a tool called ‘True Raw’ that verifies if a given image or video has been manipulated in any way.
Verify The Source Of The Video
It’s important to verify the source of a video before believing what you see. Deepfakes are often shared on social media like Facebook and Twitter, so it’s essential to check whether the video was posted by a reputable source or someone who may have an agenda.
One way to do this is by conducting a reverse image search using tools like Google Image Search or TinEye.
Another way to verify the source of a video is to examine metadata, which includes information about when and where the video was captured. You can also seek expert opinion from professionals in fields such as journalism or digital forensics.
Deepfake technology is becoming increasingly common, with the potential for serious legal and ethical ramifications. These technologies enable the manipulation of images and videos, which can lead to misinformation and confusion.
To protect yourself from the dangers of deepfakes, it’s important to be aware of the warning signs. These include inconsistencies in facial expressions or audio quality. By staying vigilant and keeping an eye out for these signs, you can help ensure that the media you consume is trustworthy.
If you suspect that a video or image may be a deepfake, there are several steps you can take to verify its authenticity. This may involve using specialized software or seeking expert opinions. Additionally, you can examine metadata or perform a reverse image search to gather more information about the file.
Deepfakes are created using advanced AI algorithms, which make them appear realistic and convincing. However, there are still ways to spot signs of manipulation. These may include unnatural lip-syncing, blurry or distorted edges, and inconsistencies in lighting or shadows. By staying informed and taking steps to verify the authenticity of media, we can protect ourselves from the harmful effects of deepfakes.